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Oporto

Porto: Best European Destination 2014

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Porto: Best European Destination 2014

Porto, the second Portuguese largest city, was elected for the second time “Best European Destination” of the year, by the European Consumers Choice.

Porto was first awarded the honor in 2012. In 2013 the title was won by Istanbul.

Porto won with 14.8% of the votes, followed by Zagreb, Vienna, Nicosia, Budapest, the island of Madeira, Milan, Madrid, Berlin and Rome the other destinations in the top ten. The voting was carried online involving multiple social networks

According to the European Consumers Choice, “The fact that Porto has once more been selected reflects well its fame, attractiveness and excellence as a tourist destination, as well as the dynamism of this sector with the greatest growth potential and which contributes most to national GDP.”

For three weeks, from 22 January to 12 February, travelers from all over the world voted online on their favorite destination among the 20 shortlisted to participate on the competition.

Porto, population 237,559 (2011), offers a variety of resources and historic authenticity to its visitors. Discovering Porto means discovering what makes it different: the famous Port Wine, the Historical Center designated World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, Museums, enchanting parks and gardens.

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The city has undergone a remarkable renaissance in the last two decades. At the mouth of the Rio Douro, the hilly city presents a diversity of styles from narrow medieval alleyways to extravagant baroque churches, romantic little squares and wide modern boulevards.

The European Consumers Choice is an independent non-profit-making organization based in Brussels created to recognize companies skilled in producing innovative and intelligent designs for easy to use products. European Consumer Choice in partnership with tourism offices also rewards the best holiday destinations in Europe.

Using Eurostat’s annual tourism data and experts’ professional advice, a central jury selects 20 towns to compete for the “European Best Destination” title.

Source: http://portuguese-american-journal.com/

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Douro: where Port Wine Grapes are Grown

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Douro: where Port Wine Grapes are Grown

Douro valley
Douro region

We inch up the serpentine bends, pulling the car precariously close to the side of the narrow road closer to the river, as an SUV returning from the mountain, hurtles down in haste. We draw in deep breaths, keeping our eyes as wide open as the glare of the sun will allow. Below us lies a latticework of vines growing in schist rock terraces, arranged at pleasing angles.

As if splitting the mountain interface, the mighty Douro river carves its way, flowing between Portugal and Spain. The river has witnessed the efforts of man and vine for more than 2000 years; in 1991 the Alto Douro was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site because of the long tradition of Port production and the resultant development in infrastructure in the area.

Visit to Douro
Douro wine valley

We stop off to the side of the road as safely as we can, one of us keeps an eye out for possible oncoming traffic, the other takes a few photographs. The Douro wine valley is as spectacular as they say, but even in the heat of summer, there are very few tourists. There are a number of rural houses across the river, some with a noble edge, and they cast ethereal shadows in the flat green waters. The terrain is unique and I feel a growing curiosity about the history and people who live and work here.

While the grapes for some incredibly good table wines, of which we have had the pleasure over three months of living in Portugal to sample, are grown here in the Douro, the region is most famous for excellent Ports or fortified wines. In picturesque Oporto, one of our favourite Portuguese cities which lies at the basin of the Douro, you will see prominent signs advertising the names of Port wine cellars. Port is stored in these cool cellars, but in order to get there, trucks must traverse the precarious journey down. We are told that it isn’t uncommon during harvest season for more than one collision or for a truck to tragically take a tumble over the side.

Douro
Tourism to Douro

In the old days, barrels of pressed grapes were transported by rabelo along the unpredictable Douro.

At various estates or quintas, you may still find rudimentary chapels built in the old style – these were houses of worship where the stewards of those small vessels would come to pray for safe passage.

At Quinta do Crasto, we are taken up to admire the views of the valley from the pool area before our tasting commences and the eye is tricked into believing the pool flows into the Douro river.

It is here that we are reminded what we have been told before, that as popular as Port is, it isn’t so with the Portuguese. Rather, it’s an English custom that seems to live on; naturally much of the port produced is for export. The Douro developed the first appellation system, a wine classification to distinguish the three regions in which the grapes are grown. This was developed 200 years before the French system!

View toward Douro river

Later on at Quinta do Nova, we both agree that this could be the very spot for a renewal of wedding vows, except we both know we have family who wouldn’t commit to scaling the hills to get here. Lunch is an elaborate affair paired with the estate’s wines, under the shaded pergola.

Portuguese Port Wine
Wine Tasting

After a day of exploring, wine tasting (the driver must opt for sensibility, the roads aren’t worth the risk), and taking in views we head back to the beautiful CS Vintage House Hotel for a nap and a shower before dinner at Rui Paula’s DOC, a sleek and modern restaurant with an excellent reputation, on the water’s edge.

Wine tasting in Portugal
Holiday at Douro

And tomorrow? We’ll blissfully do it all again.

Douro region
Douro tourists
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New York Times distinguishes Oporto as a ‘Place to Go’

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New York Times distinguishes Oporto as a ‘Place to Go’

According to the prestigious New York Times newspaper, the northern Portuguese city of Oporto is one of the ’46 Places to go in 2013’ – “whether you travel to eat or shop, surf or ski, new adventures await.”

Oporto ranks 28th on the NYT’s list of the top-46 destinations of 2013, chosen for its quality for price, its architecture, and, of course, its port.

Portugal’s economic pain is your gain in Oporto, one of Western Europe’s great bargains. New boutique hotels and restaurants, like the Yeatman, dramatically perched above the Douro River featuring Oporto’s first Michelin-starred restaurant, have brought a fresh burnish to this Unesco-protected city where labyrinthine narrow streets, ancient buildings and black-cloaked students inspired a young English tutor who lived here in the early 1990s named J. K. Rowling”, the author writes.

Wedged between Chang-baishan (China), at 27th, and Puerto Rico in 29th, Oporto is also praised for its most famous export; “The financial downturn doesn’t detract from the city’s most prominent industry — port wine — which can be sampled in the cellars of Sandeman, Graham’s or Taylor-Fladgate with a terraced restaurant, on the Douro’s south bank.”

Topping the NYT’s list of 46 destinations to see this year is Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, “Because the whole world will be there in 2014”; the Mediterranean port town of Marseille (France) comes in second, and rounding off the top-three places to visit this year is Nicaragua, central America, for its new high-end lodges and up-and-coming food scene.

Source: http://www.vivainportugal.pt

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The Place Behind the Port: Diving into the Douro Valley

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The Place Behind the Port: Diving into the Douro Valley

Do you remember as a kid in the playground, climbing to the top of a slide and looking down to the bottom, thinking how high up you were? Well, standing at the top of any of the near-vertical vineyards in Portugal’s Douro Valley is a similar sensation!

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The Douro Valley runs west to east, 70km inland from the coastal city of Porto, and sits along the winding Douro River. The scenery in the valley is some of the most spectacular I’ve ever seen in a wine region. Not only because of the precipitous nature of the vineyards, which are striking in their own right, but also as you stand on the top of a vineyard and look around, you see a kaleidoscope of shades of green much like tiles of quilt, made up of individual plots of vines, olive trees and shrubbery, all tied together by the meandering jade coloured river.

It is from these vineyards that some excellent red table wines are produced along with one of the world’s most revered wines, Port, for which the region is renowned.

Demarcating the Douro Valley

The Douro Valley is one of Europe’s oldest demarcated wine regions, meaning there have been regulations in place for over 300 years to protect the styles of wine produced there. It was back in 1756 that the Marquis de Pombal, then Prime Minister, instituted a sequence of actions to standarize the sales of Port, and amongst many of the things he did, was restrict the area within which the grapes planted for Port production could be grown.

There are three distinct regions within the demarcated area of the Douro Valley and we visited all three on a recent trip. Every quinta (farm) that produces port, or dry table wines, must be located within one of the 21 municipalities within these three areas. As I tried not to get car sick as we wound our way along narrow mountain roads and around stomach-churning hair-pin curves, we discovered that each of the 3 areas produce wines of different styles.

The vineyards in Baixo (by-sho) Corgo receive the most rainfall and therefore produce a lighter style of wine with less ageing potential that are used mainly for cost-effective, entry level ruby ports. As I tried not to get car sick as we wound our way along narrow mountain roads and around stomach-churning hair-pin curves, we discovered that each of the 3 areas produce wines of different styles. The vineyards in Baixo (by-sho) Corgo receive the most rainfall and therefore produce a lighter style of wine with less ageing potential that are used mainly for cost-effective, entry level ruby ports.

In the middle of the valley lies the Cima (see-ma) Corgo. A few of the wines produced here will become dry wine, but most are used for some of the region’s best ports, including Late Bottled Vintages and many of the premium vintage ports.

Vineyards in the Douro Valley

The Douro Superior, on the very eastern end of the valley, close to the Spanish border, has numerous vineyards whose grapes are destined for port, but its main claim to fame is it produces the best dry wines of the trio.

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As you can imagine, harvesting these extremely steep vineyards is not easy. Historically, when the vineyards were first planted, two or three rows were grown horizontally across the hillside on terraces. These were similar to large steps carved into the hillsides and built with the support of high brick walls. This worked well enough, but the vineyards had to be harvested by hand as they were too narrow for a tractor to pass between them.

Terraced vineyards still exist, but these days you will also see two other types of vineyard orientation: ‘patamares’ and ‘up-and-down’. Patamares are the modern answer to terraces. The vines are still planted horizontally across the hill, but there are no more walls, instead the rows of vines are connected by sloping ramps which are wide enough for a tractor to drive through.

The third style of vineyard you’ll see amongst the patchwork scenery, is the most common in other wine regions – the multiple rows or ‘up-and-down’ plantings. Tractors can rarely scale such heights, so these have to be harvested by hand by pickers who, while doing the back-breaking work, also have the added degree of difficulty of trying to keep their balance! We got out into the vineyards and tried our hand at picking grapes which was great fun for about the first 20 minutes, any longer and you start to wonder if you’ll ever be able to stand upright again!

One piece of advice I’d offer if you ever go to the Douro Valley, (do it if you can!) – travel as often as possible by boat or train, instead of driving along the winding roads by car, not only because of the tasting you’ll be doing at the quintas you visit, but, because experiencing the landscape from these different vantage points is exhilarating and it will prevent you from turning as green as the river, like I did!

Rating Douro Wines

A fact about the vineyards in the Douro, which I found interesting and that very few wine drinkers are aware of, is that they are classified by a rigorous rating system. The better the vineyard site, the better the rating, the better the perks for the winemakers.

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There are twelve features that are taken into account and points allotted, based on such elements as aspect, exposure to sunlight, soil density, gradient, age of vines – and according to Quinta do Tedo owner, Vincent Bouchard, the most important element in attaining a high rating is the vineyard location.

So what are the benefits of having a good rating? The main one is that quintas with the highest scores are allowed to make more wine that those with a lesser grade which means they’ll have more to sell.

Vineyards are given a score between A-F, and only about 2-2.5% of the vineyards have top ratings of A or B, the majority fall into the C and D categories. This doesn’t mean the wine are inferior, just that there’s not as much of it.

Grapes of the Douro Valley

We’ve talked a lot about the vineyards so far, so now let’s take a look at the grapes themselves. Incredibly there are over 90 varieties growing in the Douro and all of them are permitted for use in the port blend as stipulated by the Port and Douro Wine Institute (IVDP), which is charged with overseeing the modernized regulations set forth by the Marquis de Pombal.

Through several series of tests over the years, five grape varieties have been recognized as the ones best suited to Port production (many of which you’ll also see on the labels of bottles of dry wine from Portugal). They are: Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Roriz (Tempranillo in Spain), Tinto Cão and Tinta Barroca, but there are many others used including Sausão, Tinta Amarella and Tinta Carvalha.

Historically vineyards were planted with a mixture of varieties all growing in amongst each other, to the point where even the growers weren’t sure exactly which ones they had on their land! This is still the case today and such vineyards are known as ‘field blends’. We picked grapes in a field blend and to our untrained eyes all the grapes looked the same – they were purple! But on closer inspection, the size of the berries varied slightly and when you crushed the grapes between your fingers and rubbed the skins together, some had dark, staining skins while others were juicy and pulpy with barely any colour at all.

Many of the newer vineyards are planted with just one variety simply in order to ensure all the grapes reach maturity by harvest time, since not all grapes in a field blend are as ready to be harvested as others.

The Extreme Douro Valley Climate

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One thing all the varieties grown in the Douro Valley have in common is their ability to withstand extremely warm temperatures. Summer in the Douro can see the mercury rise to over 40˚C for days at a time. Manuel de Novaes Cabral, President of the IVDP, describes the climate in the Douro as “9 months of winter and 3 months of hell!”.

Even though we visited at the end of September when the weather is usually still very hot, we got an early dose of winter with windy, cool conditions and didn’t experience the savage summer heat. It is the unbearable high temperatures that compelled Port shippers in the 18th century to send the wines away from the Douro Valley to age. They wanted to avoid the roasted characters, known as the ‘Douro bake’, that are associated with wine matured in the oppressive heat. The spring after the harvest the wines were always shipped down to the coast and the town of Vila Nova de Gaia, which lies across the river from Porto near the Atlantic coast.

‘Gaia’, as it’s referred to, may be considered the spiritual home of Port. Even though no wine is actually made there, the city is intrinsically tied to the Douro Valley, not just by the winding thread of the river, but because up until a couple of decades ago, every bottle of port produced in the Douro Valley had to be exported from the city of Gaia.

The Famed Port Lodges

We walked around the town amongst some of the vast lodges (cellars) owned by the big port shippers like Taylor’s, Cockburns, Grahams, Ramos Pinto, Sandeman, enjoying views of the long, slender Rabelo boats that used to bring the wine from the valley down to Gaia, before trains took over. We paid a visit to Taylor’s and saw the hundreds upon hundreds of barrels of port of all shapes and sizes resting in Gaia’s moderate climate, which unlike the heat of the valley, is ideal for ageing these special wines.

Until only a few decades ago, all the wine made in the Douro Valley had to be sold and shipped from Gaia, meaning many of the 32,500 winemakers had no choice but to sell their entire production to one of the big shippers who could afford to own a lodge in Gaia. Thankfully this restriction was lifted in 1986 and people like the fabulous, young, passionate Oscar Quevdeo can now ship his family’s wines directly from the Douro Valley, which is great for them and even better for us!

The Douro Valley and the cities of Porto and Vila Nova de Gaia are fascinating – dramatic and striking is the landscape, alive and enthusiastic is the passion of everyone involved with port production (and almost everyone is in one way or another!) and steeped in tradition yet contemporary and refined is the wine.

There is great history and pride in every bottle of port and dry wine from the Douro Valley and whether you drink one in the steep vineyards or at home with friends, each one brings us a sense of pleasure in much the same way as slithering down that slide gave us as a kid.

Source: www.catavino.net

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Portugal’s got talent

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Portugal’s got talent

No, there isn’t any series of the latest success show “Britain’s got talent” planned for Portugal. We do have some entertainment shows that are in line with Idols and this one in particular, but what we bring to you today is a different kind of talent. Not better just different and as well, a reflection of what Portugal is about by the hands of some of our dearest citizens that leverage this nation thorough their actions and success.

Portugal, with a privileged geographical position on Europe’s West Coast, has an Atlantic vocation that has always left its mark on the country’s history and culture.

The country’s proximity to the sea had a key influence on the maritime discoveries of the 15th and 16th centuries in which Portugal played a pioneering role in connecting together the world’s continents - thus triggering the first wave of economic and social globalisation. Today, Portugal is proud of the many influences that it has assimilated – visible in much of the country’s material and immaterial heritage - and also the influence it has left on other countries and continents, including the fact that the Portuguese language is spoken by over 200 million people.

In a territory of only 92 000 Km², there is such a tremendous diversity of landscapes and cultural and historical riches that visitors are sure to find of a wide array of experiences close at hand - whether in the mountains or the sea, in cities or historic villages in the hinterland.

Enjoying a particularly dynamic moment in its history, Portugal is the homeland of many people renowned throughout the world for their talents. Allow us to present six among many others and some of their thoughts towards their country.

José Mourinho – Football Coach

José Mourinho – Football Coach

My country has 220 days of sunshine a year. Sunshine and a gentle climate are bound to be waiting for me, whenever I return to Portugal.

Portugal has the highest number of sunshine hours per year in Europe. In the Algarve, where I like to spend my holidays, there are over 3,000 sunshine hours a year… and whether travelling north or south, in any season, Portugal always offers perfect conditions for enjoying nature, travelling or breathing in some fresh air.”

 “21% of my country is constituted by Nature Reserves and Parks. I can find charming, natural landscapes throughout the country, either along the coast or in the interior.

I was born in Gaia, next to Oporto. The River Douro flows into the Atlantic in this spot. Port wine and the river forge a special union between Gaia and the city of Oporto - located on the opposite bank. Oporto and the Douro’s winegrowing cultural landscape are two World Heritage jewels.

It’s possible to have a pleasant seaside walk along the 12 km eco-track starting in Gaia, or in the nature trails in Cabo da Roca, integrated within the Sintra-Cascais Natural Park.There are also many BTT and pedestrian trails in the interior, for example the Serra de São Mamede Natural Park, in the Alentejo, that includes Marvão - a walled hilltop village. The Alentejo is better known for the beauty of its vast rolling plains, that is particularly popular in springtime when the fields are filled with scented flowers.”

Vanessa Fernandes, triathlon world champignon

Vanessa Fernandes, triathlon world champignon

Mariza, Fado singer

Mariza, Fado singer

 “The capital of my country is the only one in Europe where the sun sets over the sea. Lisbon is a city of contrasts where history and modernity are to be found standing hand in hand on the banks of the River Tagus.

 One of the most memorable concerts of my career took place in Belém. This is an area full of monuments, where modern buildings have successfully joined together with the uniquely Portuguese Manueline architecture classified as World Heritage.

Walking through Alfama – or Mouraria, where I grew up and learned to sing fado – you will eventually arrive at the Castle with its fabulous view over the river and sea. Stay there for a while to watch the sunset and then enjoy dinner in the typical atmosphere of a fado house.”

“In my country, I can appreciate over 20,000 years of History, from the early rock paintings to more recent contemporary art.

At the present time, Portugal is marked by harmonious contrasts between an age-old culture and all the excitement of innovative projects, geared towards the future.

Portugal is the country with the oldest borders in Europe, the homeland of the discoverers who, in the 15th and 16th centuries, set sail to conquer the seas and ended up connecting continents. Throughout its history, Portugal has brought together different and remote cultures, all of which have left their marks on the national heritage and on the personality and lifestyle of its free-spirited and hospitable people.”

Joana Vasconcelos, fine artist

Joana Vasconcelos, fine artist

Nelson Évora – triple jump world champignon

Nelson Évora – triple jump world champignon

My country has Europe’s longest white sand beach. 30 km of fine, golden sand awaits you next to Lisbon. Along Europe’s West Coast it’s possible to find open beaches and invigorating waves together with small coves and bays where one feels like an explorer. To the south, the waters are calmer and warmer, ideal for those who enjoy warmth and sun bathing.

My country is the world’s finest golf destination. With a gentle climate and lush, green landscapes overlooking the sea, holidays spent in Portugal offer an oasis in my annual schedule, whether in the island of Madeira or in the rest of the country.

The green turfs that I know best are those of football pitches but I also know that Portugal is famous for its first-class golf courses – with over 70 located throughout the country. The Algarve, in addition to being the country’s leading tourism zone is also famous for its golf courses and has been classified as the world’s finest golf destination. The Lisbon region - previously elected Europe’s best golf destination - has over 20 golf courses along the Estoril and Cascais Coast. I’m familiar with some of the resorts, located in wonderful settings, offering views over the sea or the Sintra Mountains - an exquisitely beautiful region included in UNESCO’s World Heritage list.

But for me, holidays are above all an opportunity to enjoy the sea and Portuguese gastronomy. The island of Madeira, where I was born, has a subtropical climate and bountiful flower-filled vegetation. For me, the local fish and shellfish taste better than in any other part of the world. And I also think the fruit has a more intense flavour!

Cristiano Ronaldo, football player

Cristiano Ronaldo, football player

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There many other talents behind this great country, great communities of mix cultures that thrive this nation and as a all make also outstanding achievements. Portugal, Europe’s West Coast is also known by having the biggest solar plant in the world and being the fastest growing European country in wind energy.

Source:Condensed information www.visitportugal.com, Portugal Tourism Board

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Food & Wine: Any Port in a storm

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Food & Wine: Any Port in a storm

By Robert Rabine

It’s finally getting cold and the holidays are here. Now is the perfect time to snuggle up next to the fire with a good glass of fortified red wine from the Douro Valley. A glass of what? From where? Port…you know, from Portugal.

When I was younger I had two misconceptions about port: (1) I used to think it gave me a hangover from all the sugar. Wrong. It was from all the assorted cocktails and glasses of wine I drank before actually getting to the port. (2) They added alcohol to port because the Portuguese wine itself was so bad. Well, not exactly. Initially, in the 1690s, they added a small amount of aguardente (similar to brandy) to plain red wine to stabilize it for shipping. Port was established as a protected appellation in 1756, but by the early 1800s the product had evolved into something quite different. Gradually, they began adding the aguardente to the barrels to stop fermentation while the wine was still sweet and strong (20 percent alcohol). It eventually became something similar to today’s port.

It’s called port because it was always shipped from the seaside city of Porto on the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Which is weird, if you think about it. That would be like calling all wine from Napa Valley “San Mateo.” Port is actually grown and bottled in the hot, dry Douro Valley along the Douro River in northeastern Portugal. There are three sub-appellations that make different types of port reflecting their distinct terroirs. Most inexpensive ruby and tawny ports come from the Baixo (lower) Corgo. Tawny ports are barrel-aged and allow for considerable oxidation and evaporation in the barrel; hence their brownish color and somewhat nutty flavor. The Cima (upper) Corgo is hotter and gets less rainfall. It produces the best bottle-aged vintage and ruby ports. These are characterized by their bright color and freshness.

More fun facts: The grapes used in red ports are usually a blend of five or six varieties, both indigenous (like touriga nacional) and imports (like tempranillo). There are also white and rose ports. A LBV, or late bottle vintage, has spent more time in the barrel before being bottled due to lack of demand. Serve port at around 63 degrees Farenheit. The glass should be around 4 ounces and have a small bowl with sides that angle inward, like a shorter, fatter champagne flute. Vintage ports can be incredibly long lived. Always decant older ports, but drink them right away. The individual port houses – like Dow, Warres, Cockburn – decide when to declare the year a “vintage” year-meaning worthy of aging, but it must be approved by the Institute of Port. It’s in Lisbon. Not surprisingly, I have actually been there.

Source: shorelinetimes.com

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Portugal Finest Wine Regions - Douro Wines

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Portugal Finest Wine Regions - Douro Wines

Following our previous post of Portugal Wine & Vineyards’ where we presented the Tejo wine region, I want you to continue to be enchanted by this fine country by helping you to discover the one of the oldest wine regions in the world – Douro Region, also known by Porto wine region

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The Douro valley is one of the most impressive landscapes in the world. Unesco has classify it as a World Heritage site.

"Wine has been produced by traditional landholders in the Alto Douro region for some 2,000 years. Since the 18th century, its main product, port wine, has been world famous for its quality. This long tradition of viticulture has produced a cultural landscape of outstanding beauty that reflects its technological, social and economic evolution. It is an outstanding example of a traditional European wine-producing region, reflecting the evolution of this human activity over time."

Source: UNESCO

The extraordinary stepped terraces hill sided have been carved by generations of men who labored the land to produce the finest liqueur on hearth – the Porto Wines.

The region offers great contrasts, the Douro is marked by the shale mountains ranges of Marão and Montemuro, sheltered from Atlantic winds and creating a Mediterranean and continental climate. The Douro River and its tributaries wend their way at the bottom of vertiginous valleys, forming a landscape of wild and mysterious beauty subject to huge temperature changes from scorching summers to freezing winters.

Itineraries for the tourist are endless, from the famed Port producing “quintas” to the more recently-discovered pre-historic rock-carvings along the banks of the River Côa. There are fine restaurants and good hotels to discover, with boat trips up the Douro and steam-train journeys – all within sight of the countryside’s breathtaking beauty. Regional cuisine is matched well by fabulous Ports and the ever-increasing number of fine Douro wines.

Visiting the region

When visiting the region you will not only discover the magnificent beauty of Douro valley and its river you will also discover its history and its people. To go on a journey to discover this unique place, with unique history and culture you can chose the historic steam train – put it in your diary for this year between 5 June and 9 October 2010; by car, up and down the landscape or in a delightful cruise along the river with service on board and stops on the most charming little places. You will not forget this experience. Please click on the following link http://ow.ly/1i6A0 to view the river tour and for more information about cruises please go to http://ow.ly/1i6Ih

Enology

Today, there are two distinctly different ways of making a Douro wine.  The traditional method, where the grapes are trod in a lagar – a wide, shallow granite tank – produces wines with more colour and tannins which, generally speaking, improves their potential for ageing.  On the other hand, there is a more modern method that has risen in popularity, where the wines are made in stainless steel tanks under controlled temperatures.  The latter wines are more elegant and the aromas of the wine are better preserved.  Some winemakers use both winemaking techniques in order to obtain more complex wines.

There have also been changes in the manner by which these wines are aged before they are bottled.  Traditionally, the wines were aged in large wooden vats although these are being gradually replaced by oak casks or by stainless steel tanks.

Grapes variety

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Vintage, some of the best years

The year 1994: A “monumental” vintage, even more intense than that of 1992, with tannins and fruit concentration. According to James Suckling from the American magazine Wine Spectator, which back in 1997 attributed the highest rating (100 points) to the Taylor and da Fonseca Vintages, as well as first place among the hundred best wines of that year, “Great Vintage Ports as the ones from this year come around only a few times in a lifetime “. A general declaration. Excellent weather, harvests under ideal conditions, with perfect grapes.

The year 1992: Exceptional vintage, with tannins and fruit concentrations.

The year 1991: Excellent vintage, harmonious and rich. Hot and dry summer, with only a few light rains at the beginning of September. Harvest under ideal conditions.

The year 1989: Very hot summer. Premature harvest, under ideal climatic conditions. Some excellent wines.

The year 1987 Very dry winter and spring. Slow maturation. Very hot and dry summer. Premature harvest, at the beginning of September. It was not a Vintage year, because of the low production. Few producers declared production, although there were several single-quinta wines. Very fine and fruity wines.

The year 1985: Wines with a very fine aroma. Exceptional quality. A classic Vintage, with intense aromas and a firm structure in fruit and tannins. Almost all producers declared production. Excellent weather. Cold start to winter, but warm February and March. Some rain in spring and normal temperatures until summer. A very hot June, followed by a normal summer. Harvest under perfect conditions.

(...)

The year 1966: Exceptional quality. Very sweet wines and rich in tannins, some of them sublime, with large aging capacity. Almost all producers declared production. Normal winter, with some rain, but afterwards the weather became dry between April and September. Grapes with a high sugar level, some of them burned. It only rained slightly at the beginning of the harvest (end of September). Scarce production.

The year 1963: A classic Vintage, intense and balanced, deep-purple, fruity and with a large aging capacity. “An apotheosis of Vintage”, as Chantal Lecouty said. Almost all producers declared production. Large production. Normal winter and cold rainy spring, but with good weather when blooming. Hot and dry summer. It only drizzled just before the harvests. During the harvest (end of September), perfect weather, with very hot days and cool nights.

The year 1960: Excellent quality, with sweet and elegant wines, with a good structure and much colour and body. Almost all companies declared production. Very hot year and premature maturity. The harvests started in the second week of September, initially with hot weather but with drizzling rain and cold after 24 September, which harmed the later harvests.

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The year 1935: A classic Vintage, but some producers did not declare production because of having declared it in the previous year (example of a “split Vintage”). A harmonious wine, rich in fruity aromas and rich in tannins. Dry winter, Abnormally cold spring, with some frosts. Late blooming and fructification. Irregular summer, but the harvest occurred under ideal conditions. In 1937, Sandeman bottled its entire 1935 Vintage, simultaneously celebrating the George V (1935) Jubilee and the Coronation of George VI (1937), with two allusive medallions engraved on the bottles.

The Year 1934:Exceptional quality, mature and fruity, despite being a year of unstable weather. Dry winter, rainy spring. Late blooming and fructification. A very hot July. Some rain in September. A late harvest at the beginning of October, with ideal weather.

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The year 1873: Great Vintage, with characteristics of sweetness. Almost all companies declared production. Late harvest, in ideal weather conditions.

The year 1872: Excellent Vintage, with very delicate and rich wines that proved to be better than was initially expected. Many companies declared production and others did not because they chose to give privilege to the previous year.

The year 1870: Great Vintage, very delicate and full-bodied, comparable to that of 1834, according to some traders. All companies declared. Scarce production.

The year 1868: One of the most delicate Vintages of the 19th Century, very rich and strong. A very hot year. In August the grapes appeared to be burnt and the year seemed a write-off. But a light rain that fell before the harvest saved the production. All companies declared production.

The year 1863: A great Vintage, one of the best years in the history of Port, according to Ernest Cockburn. A very hot year until the end of August. All companies declared production.

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For more information and complete list please visit Instituto dos Vinhos do Douro e do Porto.

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